This National Education Policy envisions an education system rooted in Indian ethos that contributes directly to transforming India, that is Bharat, sustainably into an equitable and vibrant knowledge society.
- Current 10+2 structure in school education will be modified with a new curricular restructuring of 5+3+3+4 covering ages 3-18. Currently, children in the age group 3-6 are not covered. In the new structure, a strong base of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) from age 3 is also included, which is aimed at promoting better overall learning.
- Curriculum content will be reduced in each subject to its core essentials, to make space for critical thinking and analysis based learning.
- Students will be given increased flexibility and choice of subjects to study, particularly in secondary school, so that they can design their own paths of study and life plans.
- Wherever possible, the medium of instruction until at least Grade 5, but preferably till Grade 8 and beyond, will be the home language/mother-tongue/local language/regional language.
- In addition to high-quality offerings in Indian languages and English, foreign languages will also be offered at the secondary level, for students to learn about the cultures of the world.
- Special Educators for subject teaching for children with disabilities/Divyang children at the Middle and Secondary school level, including teaching for specific learning disabilities.
- By 2021, a new and comprehensive National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education, NCFTE 2021, will be formulated by the NCTE in consultation with NCERT, based on the principles of this National Education Policy 2020. The NCFTE will thereafter be revised once every 5-10 years.
- Free boarding facilities will be built – matching the standard of Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas – in school locations where students may have to come from far, and particularly for students who from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds, with suitable arrangements for the safety of all children, especially girls.
- Under the aegis of the Ministry of Defence, State Governments may encourage opening NCC wings in their secondary and higher secondary schools, including those located in tribal-dominated areas.
- End fragmentation of higher education by transforming higher education institutions into large multidisciplinary universities, colleges, and HEI clusters/Knowledge Hubs.
- Single-stream HEIs will be phased out over time, and all will move towards becoming vibrant multidisciplinary institutions.
- Institutions will have the option to run Open Distance Learning (ODL) and online programmes, provided they are accredited to do so, in order to enhance their offerings, improve access, increase GER, and provide opportunities for lifelong learning.
- By 2030, only educationally sound, multidisciplinary, and integrated teacher education programmes shall be in force, to restore integrity and credibility required to restore the prestige of the teaching profession.
- Vocational education will be integrated into all school and higher education institutions in a phased manner over the next decade. MHRD will constitute a National Committee for the Integration of Vocational Education (NCIVE) to oversee this effort.
- This policy envisions the establishment of a National Research Foundation (NRF). The overarching goal of the NRF will be to enable a culture of research to permeate through our universities.
- Setting up of Higher Education Commission of India (HECI), an umbrella institution, having four verticals.
- National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC) – It will function as the common, single point regulator for the higher education sector.
- National Accreditation Council (NAC) – Accreditation of institutions will be based primarily on basic norms, public self-disclosure, good governance, and outcomes.
- Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC) – will carry out funding and financing of higher education based on transparent criteria.
- General Education Council (GEC) – which will frame expected learning outcomes for higher education programmes.
- The professional councils, such as ICAR, VCI, NCTE, CoA, NCVET will act as Professional Standard-Setting Bodies (PSSBs).
- Multiple mechanisms with checks and balances will combat and stop the commercialization of higher education. All HEIs – public and private – shall be treated on par within this regulatory regime.
- An outstanding adult education curriculum framework will be developed by a new and well-supported constituent body of the NCERT.
- Suitable infrastructure will be ensured so that all interested adults will have access to adult education and lifelong learning.
- Educators will be required to deliver the curriculum framework to mature learners for all five types of adult education as described in the Adult Education Curriculum Framework.
- Efforts will be undertaken to ensure the participation of community members in adult education.
- Technology will be leveraged to strengthen and even undertake the above initiatives.
Promotion of Indian Languages, Arts and Culture
- More HEIs, and more programmes in higher education, will use the mother tongue/local language as a medium of instruction, and/or offer programmes bilingually, in order to increase access and GER and also to promote the strength, usage, and vibrancy of all Indian languages.
- High-quality programmes and degrees in Translation and Interpretation, Art and Museum Administration, Archaeology, Artefact Conservation, Graphic Design, and Web Design within the higher education system will also be created.
- An Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation (IITI) will be established. Such an institute would provide a truly important service for the country, as well as employ numerous multilingual language and subject experts, and experts in translation and interpretation, which will help to promote all Indian languages.
- For each of the languages mentioned in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, Academies will be established consisting of some of the greatest scholars and native speakers to determine simple yet accurate vocabulary for the latest concepts, and to release the latest dictionaries on a regular basis.
- All languages in India and their associated arts and culture will be documented through a web-based platform/portal/wiki, in order to preserve endangered and all Indian languages and their associated rich local arts and culture.
Technical use and Integration
- An autonomous body, the National Educational Technology Forum (NETF), will be created to provide a platform for the free exchange of ideas on the use of technology to enhance learning, assessment, planning, administration, and so on, both for school and higher education.
- The thrust of technological interventions will be for the purposes of improving teaching, learning and evaluation processes, supporting teacher preparation and professional development, enhancing educational access, and streamlining educational planning, management, and administration including processes related to admissions, attendance, assessments, etc.
- This policy has been formulated at a time when an unquestionably disruptive technology – Artificial Intelligence (AI), 3D/7D Virtual Reality has emerged. As the cost of AI-based prediction falls, AI will be able to match or outperform and, therefore, be a valuable aid to even skilled professionals such as doctors in certain predictive tasks.
- In response to MHRD’s formal recognition of new disruptive technology, the National Research Foundation will initiate or expand research efforts in the technology.
- Universities will aim to offer PhD and Masters programmes in core areas such as Machine Learning as well as multidisciplinary fields “AI + X” and professional areas like health care, agriculture, and law.
- Online and Digital Education: Ensuring Equitable Use of Technology. Creating a Dedicated Unit for Building of World Class, Digital Infrastructure, Educational Digital Content and Capacity.
Ministry Of Education
- Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) be re-designated as the Ministry of Education (MoE).
- The policy recommends strengthening and empowering the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) which will have a much greater mandate and not only a forum for widespread consultation and examination of issues relating to educational and cultural development.
- The Centre and the States will work together to increase the public investment in the Education sector to reach 6% of GDP at the earliest.
- The Policy also calls for the rejuvenation, active promotion, and support for private philanthropic activity in the education sector.
The implementation of this Policy will be led by various bodies including MHRD, CABE, Union and State Governments, education-related Ministries, State Departments of Education, Boards, NTA, the regulatory bodies of school and higher education, NCERT, SCERTs, schools, and HEIs along with timelines and a plan for review, in order to ensure that the policy is implemented in its spirit and intent, through the coherence in planning and synergy across all these bodies involved in education.